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"Craven and the North West Yorkshire Highlands"
by Harry Speight
and
"Upper Wharfedale"
by Harry Speight

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produced by Colin Hinson ©

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Both of these books were written by the Yorkshire historian, Harry Speight, whose early works were published while he was Cashier at Ripley's Dyeworks, West Bowling, Bradford and appeared under the name 'Johnnie Gray'. As a writer Speight had a unique combination of original historical/genealogical research and a feel for landscape and nature.

"Craven and the North West Yorkshire Highlands " covers the Craven area and north westwards towards (and including) upper Wensleydale, Dent, Sedburgh etc.

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"Upper Wharfedale" , starts at Otley and works its way up the valley of the Wharfe through Ilkley, past Bolton Abbey, Addingham, Burnsall, Grassington, Kilnsey, with a look at Littondale and finally Langstrothdale.

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Craven & the North West Yorkshire Highlands, Summary of chapters:

PART I. - WESTERN DIVISION.
CHAPTER I., GIGGLESWICK

Introduction - Character of Craven and the North-Western Dales - Land of mountain and cataract - A paradise of wild flowers and ferns - History and Antiquities - Hotel and house accommodation - Craven diet - Longevity - Unrivalled Air-Cures - Comparison with the Black Forest and Switzerland - Giggleswick - An old British town - Domesday - Author's correspondence with Continental authorities - A reference to German charters of the 8th century, shewing the origin and meaning of Giggleswick - The lost Tarn Ebbing and Flowing Well - Other English "tidal" wells - The British canoe - First mention of the church - Some early charters - Old families - Archdeacon Paley - Amusing Anecdotes - Recent discoveries in the church - " Strainge Parsons " - Account of the Market Cross - The Grammar School - The Museum and its contents.

CHAPTER II., SETTLE

Old Settle - The post-town of the parish - Unique sun-dial - Castleberg and its watch-tower - Charter of market - Visits of old topographers - Coiners and filers - Craven Bank - Medieval aspects of Settle - Saxon medal found within the market-cross - The church - Old inns - Trade-tokens - Settle during the Civil Wars - Letter from General Lambert - The "Folly " - Proctor, the sculptor - Some men of note - Longevity at Settle - Quality of the land - Rainfall - Snow Castle - Modern institutions - Farms and gardens - Statistics of trade.

CHAPTER III., GIGGLESWICK, STACKHOUSE, LOCKS

Giggleswick - The Mid Craven Fault - Plague Stone - Bell Hill and Pagan Fires - Settle Bridge and Penyghent - Stackhouse - Lovely Residence - Brayshaw and Carr Families - Locks - Return Walk.

CHAPTER IV., GIGGLESWICK SCARS

Giggleswick Scars - The Tarn - Ancient Canoe - Staircase and Dangerous Caves - Ebbing and Flowing Well - Its construction and action explained - A laughable incident - An old custom - A legend of the Well - Miraculous appearance of a lake - Feizor - Its curious name - Clapham family - Splendid echoes - Scar top - The Schoolboys' Tower.

CHAPTER V., AROUND SMEARSIDE

An archaeological ramble - Ancient barrow with skeleton - Dead Man's Cave - Remains of Celtic Walls - Smearside - Splendid prospect - Roman Watch-tower - Roman Camp - Ice-travelled stones.

CHAPTER VI., LANGCLIFFE. CATTERICK GLEN

A trip to Catterick - Langcliffe Hall - The Dawsons - Memorials of Sir Isaac Newton - Langcliffe Village - Its former site - The Naked Woman Inn - Winskill - "Lang Tom," the poet - The open Moor - Catterick Force and Glen - Lovely Scenery.

CHAPTER VII., ALL ABOUT THE VICTORIA CAVE

Up in the hills again - " Samson's Toe " - The Scars and their primitive inhabitants All about the Victoria Cave - Its treasures and what they tell - Its curious discovery and history of the exploration - Night incident - A hyena den - Pre-glacial remains - Sketch of mammoth by pre-glacial man - Age of deposits - Other local caves and discoveries - Attermire. not the outer water - Its meaning explained - Historic deductions - Old lake - Rare plants - The cave and its remains - Occupation of caves during recent war-panics - Roman Camp at High Hill - Scaleber Force.

CHAPTER VIII., UP RIBBLESDALE FROM SETTLE

Up the Ribble - The Settle and Carlisle railway - Some interesting features of its construction - Particulars of viaducts and tunnels - Enormous difficulties - Longest tunnels in England - Winskill Rock - Tremendous blast - Stainforth Its former importance - The old Knights of Stainforth - A horse's skull found buried in Giggleswick church - Early property transactions - Stainforth Force - A wild walk - The oldest rocks in Yorkshire - Scientific aspects of the scenery - Glacial drift and boulders - Some remarkable examples.

CHAPTER IX., LAWKLAND AND THE SCAR CAVES

A lovely walk - Lanes of wild flowers - Lawkland - The Old Hall of the Inglebys The smallest church in Yorkshire - Cross Streets and the Roman highway - Buckhaw Brow - Kelcowe Cave - Buckhaw Brow Cave - Cave Ha', an old bear den - Interesting discoveries - Austwick Beck - A story of the coaching days.

CHAPTER X., CLAPHAM

Charming Clapham - Former aspects - Flying Horse Shoe Hotel - Its meaning explained - Ancient state of the manor - Old families - The Church and Market Cross - Old Manor House - Sir Michael Faraday, son of a Clapham blacksmith - ingleborough Hall - Romantic cascades - Old coaching days.

CHAPTER XI., INGLEBOROUGH CAVE AND GAPING GILL

Clapdale Castle - The Ingleborough Cave - Its discovery and history - Description of the interior - Age of the stalactites - Floods in the cave - Extent of the Excavations - Measurements - Clapdale Pass and Cave - Trow Gill - An extinct waterfall - Gaping Gill - Flood scene - Descent of the Gill - A wild prospect - Ascent of Ingleborough.

CHAPTER XII., AUSTWICK. THE NORBER BOULDERS

Walk to Austwick - Peculiar examples of " glaciation " - Former importance cf Austwick - Old landed families - Austwick Hall - The Church, Cross, &c. - Some strange tales - Wild flowers - The Holly Fern here yet - Seventy kinds of ferns collected - The famous Norber boulders - Their history and wonderful aspects described - Nature's oldest cathedral - Effects of the Ice Age - Ancient dried-up lakes - Robin Procter's Scar - Lovely view.

CHAPTER XIII., CAVE HUNTING ON INGLEBOROUGH

A land of caves, gulfs, and swallow-holes - Their origin and aspects scientifically explained - Cave hunting on Ingleborough - A wild tramp - Long Kin holes and cave - Marble Pot - Juniper Gulf - Simon Fell Caves - Alum Pot - Ascent of Simon Fell - The Druids - An ancient forest - Local place names.

CHAPTER XIV., CLAPHAM TO INGLETON

The old road from Clapham to Ingleton - Newby and Furness Abbey - Local properties of the Abbey - Deer park at Ribblehead - Newby Cote - Ascent of the Scars - Caves and pot-holes - A tremendous abyss - The Craven Fault - Rantry Hole - Cold Cotes - The Tow Scar Fault - High Leys and Holly Plat House - Glorious prospect - Yarlsber and the Danish Camp - Ease Gill Glen and Waterfall - Beautiful scenery, geologically explained.

CHAPTER XV., OVER THE MOORS TO BENTHAM

Walks between Clapham and Bentham - Newby Moor - Bolland Moor - Mewith Head - Clapham Wood Hall and the Faradays - The Glasites - Keasden - Lumb Falls - Queen of Fairies Chair - A tramp over Burn Moor - Four Stones, &c.

CHAPTER XVI., BENTHAM

Bentham - Roman and Saxon remains - The church in Domesday - Ancient families - History of the manor - Gibson's Green and Dr. John Gibson - Curious will - Stones fired by the Scots - A model church - Some rare relics - Fine old bell - A watch-tower in the Wars of the Roses - Bentham Registers - Burial in woollen - List of Rectors - Public institutions - Old Grammar School - Fox, the Quaker, at Bentham - Trade tokens - Ancient market-cross - The Black Hole - " Tweed Dobbie" an 1 Barguest - Beautiful scenery - Four Stones - Waterscale Wood and Cave.

CHAPTER XVII., WALKS ABOUT BENTHAM

Bentham Plague Stone - Mortality from the Plague - Interesting Justice's Warrant to keep " watche and warde " on the roads - Cessation of the Parish Registers in 1665 - Bentham Bridge - Three days in the Wenning - Wonderful instance of re-animation - A walk into the next county - Robert Hall and Catherine Parr - Lovely scenery - Wennington - Waterscale.

CHAPTER XVIII., INGLETON

History of Ingleton - Another Ingleton - Both held by the house of Neville - What does Ingleton mean ? - Celt and Roman - The Danish Conquest - The Scandinavian Inglingians - Camp at Yarlsber - Ancient local fire customs - Ingleton in Domesday - " White " towns - Ingleton in A.D. 1290 - Story of the Manor - Media val tenant rights - Customs in Elizabethan times - Ingleton Hall and the Lowthers - Residence of a Lord High Chancellor - The poet Gray at Ingleton - Twisleton and Ellerbeck disputes - The church - Old houses - Local worthies.

CHAPTER XIX., SCIENTIFIC ASPECTS OF THE INGLETON SCENERY

Causes of the scenery about Ingleton - The various rock formations - The Ingleton Coalfield - The great Craven Fault - Sub-divisions of the Fault - Their several directions explained - Immensity of the downthrow - Analysis of the Ingleton Faults - The age of the Craven Fault - Igneous Dykes - Effects of the Ice Age at Ingleton - Glacial drift and boulders - An extraordinary fragment - Ancient lake - Examples of ice-borne boulders.

CHAPTER XX., THE INGLETON GLENS AND WATERFALLS

Gray, Southey, " Barry Cornwall," and Adelaide Anne Procter at Ingleton - Turner, the painter, at Weathercote Cave, &c. - Recent " discovery " of the Ingleton glens - Formation of an Improvement Committee - Confusion in local nomenclature - Place-names explained - The glens and scenery described - Rare plants - Beautiful views - Scientific peculiarities of Thornton Force - Raven Ray - An ancient lake - Keld Head- Beasley Glen - Geological aspects - Backstone Gill Gorge - Glorious prospect - Silurian Slate quarries - Return to Ingleton.

CHAPTER XXI., INGLEBOROUGH : ITS ORIGIN, HISTORY, AND SCENERY

Up Ingleborough - Its extent and character - The oldest mountain in Yorkshire - Comparison with Snowdon - Physical structure explained - Sectional details - Botanical aspects - List of native flowers and ferns - The creeping things - Advent of Man - Ancient beacon - Celtic huts on the summit - Roman occupation of Ingleborough - Analysis of the prospect - " Jubilee " fires.

CHAPTER XXII., IN CHAPEL-LE-DALE

A remarkable dale - A Yorkshire Wonderland - Storrs Caves - Erratic Boulders - Ingleton " granite " - God's Bridge - The capital of Ingleton Fells - Interesting little chapel - Hurtle and Gingle Pots - Weathercote Cave - Turner and Westall - Douk Caves - Barefoot Wives' Hole - Mere Gill - Tatham Wife Hole - Up Whernside - Extraordinary caverns - Gatekirk, Bruntscar, Homeshaw, and Ivescar Caves - Scar Fall - Irruptions of the Scots - Discovery of coins - Rare plants - The Ice Age in Yorkshire - Stone circle - Sepulchral cairns.

CHAPTER XXIII., THROUGH KINGSDALE TO DENT

Character of Kingsdale - Danish occupation - Keld Head - Braida Garth - Greygarth Boulders - Various Pot-Holes - Rowten Cave ; a tremendous chasm - Other " Pots " - Yordas Cave --Braida Garth " Pots " - Pre-historic cairn - Kingsdale Head - Grand view - The Dent Fault, and glacial evidence.

CHAPTER XXIV., BETWEEN INGLETON AND KIRKBY LONSDALE

Thornton-in-Lonsdale - Site of the village - The church - Ancient burial custom - Masongill and the Wallers - Edmund Waller, the Court poet - " Barry Cornwall " and Adelaide Anne Procter - Doyle family - Ireby - Over Hall, and the Tathams - Leck Hall and its pleasant surroundings - Cowan Bridge and the Brontes - Coaching days - Among the Leek Fell caves - Ease Gill - Roman road - The Devil's Bridge - When was it built 7 - Recent flood - Legend of the Bridge.

CHAPTER XXV., IN THE VALE OF LUNE

From Ingleton to Burton - Halsteads - Lund Holme Spa-well - Burton-in-Lonsdale A Saxon fortress - Castle of the Mowbrays - The manor--Past and present aspects of Burton - Low Field - Cantsfield - Thurland Castle - Tunstall Church, and Charlotte Bronte - Pretty village of Burrow - A pre-historic station - Roman camp - Rauthmel's account - Roman military roads - Ancient bridge Remarkable discoveries - Description of camp - Recovery of a Roman altar, &c. - Lunefield - Kirkby Lonsdale.

CHAPTER XXVI., KIRKBY LONSDALE AND NEIGHBOURHOOD.

Earthworks and tumulus - Kirkby Lonsdale a Danish town - Past and present aspects - Old inns - Origin of market - The parish church - Underley Hall - The celebrated view from the churchyard - Lovely scenery - Casterton Woods Old corn-mill - Casterton village and church - Roman highway.

PART II. - EASTERN DIVISION.
CHAPTER XXVII., AROUND SKIPTON

Up Dales - Thorpe-sub-Montem - Threapland - Old houses - Threapland Gill and Cave - Elbolton - Curious knoll-reefs - Knave Knoll Hole - Discovery of human skeletons - Beautiful view - Walk to Barden - Simon Seat - Who was Simon? - Other Simon Hills and their pre-historic remains - The School of Simon Druid - Ascent of Simon Seat - Marked stones - Beltane feasts - A Sunset on Midsummer Day.

CHAPTER XXVIII., GARGRAVE

Walk to Gargrave - Flasby Fell - Sharp Haw, a beacon during the Spanish Armada - Red deer - A wonderful fox-hunt - Robert Story - His life at Gargrave - Poetry and Politics - Removal to London - Gargrave Church - Description of the village - The Meets of the Craven Hunt - Some private mansions.

CHAPTER XXIX., RELIC HUNTING IN MALHAMDALE

Otterburn - Gomersall family - A local poet - Otterburn Hall - Monastic cell at Otterburn - Drift hills - Post-glacial lake - Opening of pre-historic barrow - Description of contents - Remains of ancient ring-dwellings - Traces of Open Field cultivation - Ancient name of Ryeloaf Hill - Danish Camp - Roman villa at Gargrave - Effect of anticlinals on landscape - Kirkby Malham - Stocks and Ducking Stool - Last use of Ducking Stool in Craven - Calton, and General Lambert - Calton in old times - Hanlith Hall - Hanlith Moor - Ancient barrow - Unique glacial boulder - Malham.

CHAPTER XXX., MALHAM AND THE MOORS

Physical and medical aspects of Malham - Family of Malham - Ancient homestead - Inns - Unexplored caves - Skirethorns bone cave - Plants - Additions to British lichens - Birds of Malham Moor - Bordley--An old grange of the Fountains monks - Bordley Hall and the Procters - Ancient chapel and burial ground - Confiscation of estates for murder - Ancient stone circle - Walk to Grassington - Pre-historic camp and tumuli.

CHAPTER XXXI., ROUND ABOUT KILNSEY

Malham to Kilnsey - Arncliffe Clowder - Dowkabottom Cave - Its exploration and interesting discoveries - A Celtic habitation - A baby's tomb - Roman coins - Sleets cavern - Kilnsey Hall - Wade family - Manor of Kilnsey after the Dissolution - Sheep-washings of the monks - Kilnsey Crag - Supposed ancient coast line - Glacial aspects - What does Kilnsey mean? - Dr. Whitaker's opinion - The Spurn Head Kilnsea - Comparative deductions - Discovery of coins - Coniston Church, the oldest in Craven - Tennant's Arms, Kilnsey- Sulphur Springy Glacial mounds - Great Scar Limestone round Kettlewell - Lead mines.

CHAPTER XXXII., KETTLEWELL AND ARNCLIFFE

The farthest place in England from a railway - Aspects of Kettlewell - Memorable flood - Ancient church - Curious font - Extinct wild animals in Craven - Remains of early occupation by Man - Douk Cave - Ascent of Great Whernside - By the " Slit " to Arncliffe - Arncliffe, supposed eagle's cliff - Another meaning - The old church at Arncliffe.

CHAPTER XXXIII., AT THE HEAD OF THE WHARFE

Starbottom - Walk to Buckden - Romantic prospects - Beautiful wood scenery - Situation of Buckden - The meaning of Buckden - Wild deer - Buckden Hall - The Heber family - A memorable journey - The Stake Pass, a Roman road - Hubberholme and its ancient church - Pleasing custom - Great snow-drifts - Why does snow remain longer in Upper Wharfedale than elsewhere ? - Over Birks Fell - Ascent of Buckden Pike - Walden - Aysgarth - Cray Gill - Semerwater - Langstrothdale and Chaucer - Population of the dale in A.D. 1379 and A.D. 1499 - Oughtershaw - Raysgill - Over the Horse Head into Littondale - Wonderful prospect.

CHAPTER XXXIV., LITTONDALE. A WILD WALK

lonely Littondale - Grant of the valley to the Monks of Fountains - Halton Gill - Chapel - Names of tenants at the Dissolution - Wild Plants - A walk between Penyghent and Fountains Fell - Hesleden in A.D. 1540 - A Monks' courier - Giants' Graves - Are they Danish ? - Tree-burials in Denmark and in Craven - Scottish raids after Bannockburn - Rainscar, the summit of the English watershed - Fountains Fell - Highest cart road in Yorkshire - A wild pass - Winter experiences.

CHAPTER XXXV., MALHAM MOORS AND FOUNTAINS FELL

Grant of Malham Water in A.D. 1150 - Some old houses on the moors - Capon Hall, anciently Copmanhowe - Middle House and Oliver Cromwell - Other ancient tenements - Local possessions of Fountains Abbey - Particulars of them at the Dissolution - Malham Tarn - A vast prospect - Tarn House - Experiences of planting - Malham Moors in the Ice Age - Tennant Gill - Up Fountains Fell - The View, &c. - Descent into Ribblesdale.

CHAPTER XXXVI., ABOUT HELLIFIELD

Malham to Hellifield - Domesday record - Meaning of Hellifield - The Ings - Anciently an arm of the sea - Discovery of whale bones - History of the manor - Hamerton family - Hellifield Peel - Swinden - Disused coach-road - Old corn-mill - Walk to Gargrave.

CHAPTER XXXVII., LONG PRESTON

Old coach-road - Well-to-do aspects of Long Preston - The late Mr. John Thompson Saxon Church--Domesday record - The manor - History of the Parish Church - Ancient rectory house - Description of interior of church - Interesting memorials - Early font - Marks of fire - Cromwell House - The parish registers - Plague at Long Preston - Local tradition - Churchwardens' accounts - Ancient sun-dial--Beacon Coppy - Charity Hospital - School - Old mills - Local possessions of the monks - Citation of charters - Lambert family - Curious discovery of gold - Long Preston Peggy - The story of her adventures - Fragments of old ballad.

CHAPTER XXXVIII., WIGGLESWORTH AND RATHMELL

Wigglesworth - Old Hall - Soke mill - Wigglesworth Tarn - Clark's Free School - Spa Well - Longevity - Some local characters - Walk to Rathmell - Capelside Discovery of bronze celt, &c. - More ring-dwellings - Rathmell, a Celtic station - The name explained - Recent use of Celtic numerals - Pre-historic barrows - Rathmell church - The manor - Ancient mills - Tithe-barns - The oldest Nonconformist College in England at Rathmell - Rev. Richard Frankland - Remarkable flood scenes - Cleatops - Stone circle - Anley - The late Mr. John Birkbeck.

CHAPTER XXXIX., HORTON-IN-RIBBLESDALE

Extent and situation of Horton parish - Meaning of Horton - Domesday notice - Grants of lands to the monasteries - Dispute in 1224 between the Abbot of Fountains and Jervaux - History of the manor - The church - Bone-house - Curious discovery - Interior of church - Ancient glass - Supposed dedication of church to Thomas A Beckett - Another version--Kent families manor-lords of Horton - Dr. Holden - Ancient bells - Plague at Horton - The parish registers - Interesting Terrier - Old Free School - Football Field.

CHAPTER XL., ALL ABOUT PENYGHENT

Flood-rakes on Penyghent - A " smoking" beck - Douk Gill - Geological aspects A lovely nook - Thirl Pot - Mineral deposits - Thund Pot - An unexplored rift - Ascent of Penyghent - Enormous snow-drifts - Sixty sheep perished - Sequence of strata on Penyghent - Wild flowers and ferns - Prof. J. G. Baker, F.R.S., and Yorkshire botany - Observations on some Penyghent plants - From Penyghent to the moon - Ancient deer forest - Curious indictment - The Penyghent Beagles - The prospect from Penyghent - Horton trout-hatchery.

CHAPTER XLI., ON THE SCARS OF THE UPPER RIBBLE

Horton Moor edge - Sell Gill chasm - Jackdaw Hole - Horton Tarn and its origin - Turn Dub and the water from Alumn Pot - Birkwith farms - A lodge of the monks - Park Fell - Birkwith Cave - Nanny Carr Hole.

CHAPTER XLII., MOUGHTON FELL AND ALUMN POT

Beecroft Hall and the Wilsons - Moughton Fell - Erratic boulders - Interesting geological sight - Moughton Fell Cave - Selside - Alumn or Helln Pot - A stupendous chasm - What means Alumn or Allan 7 - The Celtic river Allan, and local family Aleman, a suggested explanation - Immense size of the rift - First descent of the Pot - Subsequent descents and explorations - Professor Dawkin's description.

CHAPTER XLIII., AMONG THE GILLS AND CAVES AT RIBBLEHEAD

Aspects at Ribblehead - Blea Moor an ancient snow-field - Glacial relics - Ling Gill - Inns - Gearstones, old market - Source of the Ribble - Thorns Gill - Katnot Cave - Ling Gill, its geological character - A former powerful stream - Linn or Ling Gill 1 - The gill a cover for wolves, Sc. - Citation of 13th century fine - Ancient bridge - Picturesque aspects of Ling Gill - Its vegetable interest - List of species - The Arenaria gothina, a new British plant - Other interesting botanical discoveries - Brow Gill Cave - Calf Hole - Ingman Lodge Batty Wife Hole - Ranscar Caves.

CHAPTER XLIV., HAWES, YORE HEAD, AND GARSDALE

Cam End - Boundary of the Mowbray Chase - Hawes - Meaning of Hawes - Upper Yoredale, a forest of red deer - Hawes Chapel - Charter for market - Romantic scenery - Hardraw and Simonstone - The scar waterfall - Geological peculiarities - Meaning of Hardraw - Buttertubs Pass - Mossdale Gill - Disastrous flood - Plant life - Hawes Junction - Around the Moorcock - Old pack-horse road - Hellbeck Lunds - A seat of Danish pirates - Wild animals - The last wild boar Grizedale - Gift of the valley to Jervaux Abbey - A walk through Garsdale An old coach-road - Scientific character of the dale - Bow Fell Tarn - Garsdale celebrities - No inn in Garsdale - Grand approach to Sedbergh.

CHAPTER XLV., DOWN DENTDALE

A lovely valley - Dent Head - Alpine railway - Monkey Beck - Floods and avalanches - Lee Gate and the Quaker Chapel - Marble works - Blake Gill - Cowgill Chapel - Historical sketch - Danish occupation of Dentdale - Elam family - Mary Howitt and Dee-side mill - Geology of Dentdale - Ibby Peril and its ghost - Gibshall, and Hope on, hope ever - Gibshall tannery and the Sedgwicks - Hell's Cauldron - Hackergill Cave - Deepdale.

CHAPTER XLVI., DENT

Disputed nomenclature of Dent - Meaning explained - An old Danish settlement Anciently Deneth - The Dentone of Domesday - Review of the manor - Danish proprietors before the Conquest - The Fitz Hughs - Origin of clan of Metcalfe - Dent " statesmen " - Old local industry - " Terrible knitters i' Dent" - Aspects of old Dent - Singular incident - Old customs - Parish church - Description of interior - Local longevity - Grammar School - The Sedgwicks Late Ald. Wm. Batty - Prof. Adam Sedgwick, LL.D. - Early history of the Sedgwicks - Some local institutions - Accommodation at Dent.

CHAPTER XLVII., FLOOD SCENES IN DENTDALE

Gill scenery near Dent - The raven in Dentdale - Recent remarkable flood - Author's experiences - Lake scene from Dent churchyard - View of Colm Scar and Hackergill - The Scene in Flintergill and High Gill - No market at Dent Adventure to Sedbergh - Renewal of storm - Aspects at Gate House - A break-down - Peculiar odour - View of Brackengill - A " cloud" cataract - Sublime water-scene - Other floods - Fatal waterspout on Whernside.

CHAPTER XLVIII., SEDBERGH

Extent of Yorkshire - Physical characteristics at Sedbergh - Beautiful scenery - Cautley Spout and the Howgill Fells - Glorious view - Situation of the town - Whitaker's interpretation of Sedbergh - Author's view - Sedbergh a Roman outpost - Castle How - Saxon and Dane - Meaning of Sedbergh explained - Local pronunciation - Position at the Conquest - Grant of manor to the Staveleys - The Claphams - History of the manor - Assessment in 1584 - Monastic possessions at Sedbergh - Appropriation of the church by Coverham Abbey - Description of the church - Local charities - Grammar School - Some men of note educated at the school - Brimhaw - Market cross - Stocks and ducking-stool - Inns.

CHAPTER XLIX., ON THE YORKSHIRE BORDERLAND

Ingmire Hall - Brigg Flatts Meeting House - The oldest but one Quaker establishment in England - Historical sketch - Old coaching inn - Beckside Hall and Sir John Otway - Otway family - Middleton Hall and the Middletons - Description of the building - Ancient chapel - Grimes Hill - Middleton church - Hawkin Hall, and the poet Milton - Roman mile-stone, a rare relic - Scenery of Lune - Barbon and the Shuttleworths - Aspects of the village - The church - Up Barkindale to Dent - The Dent Fault.

 


Upper Wharfedale, Summary of chapters:

CHAPTER I., OTLEY AND NEIGHBOURHOOD IN PREHISTORIC TIMES

General character of Wharfedale - Its isolation, healthfulness, and surpassing scenery - History and antiquities - Rocks and wild flowers - Early settlements in the parish of Otley - Some British and Roman roads - Otley under the Romans - Celtic survivals - Important discoveries - Local evidences of Roman Christianity - Holy Wells, &c. - Otley in the kingdom of Elmete - Abounding British remains - Otley an early and important religious centre - The planting of the Cross - Historical and other evidences - Local misconceptions - The first Yorkshire monasteries - Dedication of churches to All Saints - Local dissent in the 7th century - Pipin's Castle near Otley - Saxon Otley - Meaning of Otley - Local ethnology - The inroads of the Danes - The victory of King Athelstan - His grant of Otley to the See of York - The Archbishop's jurisdiction and privileges - The first church - A dual right of sanctuary at Otley.

CHAPTER II., RECORDS OF THE PARISH OF OTLEY FROM THE NORMAN CONQUEST

Settlement and extent of the Norman parish of Otley - The feudal manor, how worked - Township areas - Guiseley and the origin of its parish - Baildon and Bramhope in Domesday - The extinct wapentake of Gereburg, its origin and purpose - Claro wapentake and the Curia Regis - The origin of lordships - The gallows at Otley - Hanging a bellman - Citation of local executions - Rewards for felling thieves - Warrant against the Archbishop - Unpublished market-charter for Otley - Local errors - Ancient laws of sale and barter - Markets held in the nave of the church - A picturesque Otley fair-day - The monks of Bolton, Arthington, &c., attend the fairs - The Archbishop's manor-hall and court at Otley - Ancient burgage tenure - How Otley was anciently represented in Parliament - Local monastic possessions - Foundation of a leper's hospital at Otley - The building of Otley bridge - Otley in the 24th century - Abbot of Selby at Otley and local inns - The "Shepherd" Lord Clifford at Otley after the battle of Flodden - A 16th century Otley muster-roll-- Otley during the Civil War - Menston Old Hall - Local events, Extracts from the Registers - The 17th century hearth-tax - Otley and the 1715 and 1745 rebellions.

CHAPTER III., THE TOWN OF OTLEY, PAST AND PRESENT

The town of Otley - Noted visitors - Antiquity of the parish and origin of the church - Comparison with Dewsbury - Historical and architectural account of the church - The building of the aisles - Endowment of the chantry-chapels - The tombs and tablets - The families of Fairfax, Fawkes, and Vavasour - The medieties of the church - List (annotated) of vicars - Abstracts from the registers - The churchyard - The Grammar School - Local Nonconformity - The Friends - Wesleyans - Independents - Baptists - Primitive Methodists, &c. - Old roads and streets, their origin and significance - Old Otley inns - Attack on Lord Fairfax - Life at Otley in the coaching-days - The railways - Pleasant aspects - Local trades and industries - The Wharfedale Agricultural Society ; its origin and history - Amusing anecdotes - Various old customs at Otley - The Maypole - Old Otley families - Distinguished natives.

CHAPTER IV., AROUND OTLEY

Delightful scenery and associations - Bishop Tunstall's praise - Local geological formation - View from the Chevin - Otley Bridge - Newhall Old Hall - Local families - Interesting relics at Newall Hall - Otley Union - A centenarian.

CHAPTER V. FARNLEY

Farnley Hall and the Fawkes family - The family muniments - Historical sketch - The late Mr. Ayscough Fawkes and the Rev. Frederick Fawkes - The hall and its treasures - The Turner drawings - Relics of the Civil War - The park - Sale of pedigree stock - The church - Discovery of a lead coffin.

CHAPTER VI., THE PARISH OF LEATHLEY

Beautiful scenery - The Washburn - Meaning of the name - Local field-names - Pre- Conquest Leathley - Manorial history - Meaning of Leathley - The De Lelays and other families - Warburton's visit to Leathley - The Pilgrimage of Grace - The Church--Architectural description - Comparison with Celtic churches - Historical records - The old rectory - Curious old stocks and whipping-post - Ancient trades at Leathley - Boundaries of the common - The school and almshouses - Mrs. Watson, centenarian - Leathley Hall - Castley, the hall, &c. - Historical notes - Chapel Field - Ancient manor-house - A rural solitude.

CHAPTER VII., ROUND ABOUT POOL

Pool Bridge - A rare fern - History of Pool - Local monastic possessions - Old families - Old trades and inns - The church - Picturesque aspects--Local mansions - Leeds and Otley turnpike - Cycling scenes - Caley Hall, an old hunting-lodge of the Gascoignes - Park stocked with deer, zebras, &c.

CHAPTER VIII., BRAMHOPE

Meaning of Bramhope - Situation and wide view - Roman camp - Historical records - Land cultivated from ancient times - The Domesday carucate - Dyneley family - Local monastic properties - Tenants in bondage - Bramhope Hall - The Rhodes and Darwin families - The old chapel erected during the era of the Commonwealth - The old churchyard - The new church of St. Giles - The Wesleyan Chapel - The Craven Institute.

CHAPTER IX., BURLEY

The old cotton mill and how it was worked - The new mills - Burley in the van of progress - Historical records - Meaning of Burley - Local families - Descent of the manor - Monastic possessions--The church - The late Rev. Dr: Black - The Maude family - Notable houses - Recent alterations - Burley Great Pudding - Burley Hall - Local Worthies - Handsome memorial to the late Rt. Hon. W. E. Forster - Greenholme Mills, a model factory - Mr. Wm. Fison and the late Mr. Forster-- Local benefactions - Anecdote of Mr. Forster - His death and funeral - The poet Watson

CHAPTER X., ON THE EDGE OF THE MOOR

Burley Wood Head - The Rumbalds Moor hermit - Ancient stone circles - The old hamlet of Stead - The Stead family - Remarkable instance of continuous residence in one spot - Stead Hall - The Twisleton family--Picturesque aspects - Probable site of Roman camp - Prehistoric remains - Old local families - A moorland walk - _ Hawksworth Hall and the Hawksworths - Old Menston families - Menston Old Hall - The asylum.

CHAPTER XI., THE PARISH OF WESTON

Rural aspects - Antiquity of the parish - Manorial history - The manor never once sold from the Norman Conquest to the. present time - Weston Hall - Old tithe-barn - The Norman Church - The tithes - View of the surrounding country - Whin Castle - Dog Park, an old Forest Lodge - Askwith, meaning of its name - Historical records - The family of Askwith - The Kendalls - Old Quaker Meeting-House - Wesleyans - Village inns - Askwith Feast.

CHAPTER XII., DENTON AND THE FAIRFAXES

Meaning of Denton-St. Helen's Gill-Wild plants, &c. -Scales Gill-Charter mentioning ancient boundaries-Denton an ancient centre of the clothing trade - The Fairfax family-Their extraordinary talents--Distinguished visitors at Denton Ferdinando, Lord Fairfax--Thomas, Lord Fairfax, the Parliamentary General- Sale of Denton to the Ibbetsons--Denton Hall-Old-time life at the hall--The old chapel-The present church---Old customs.

CHAPTER XlII, ILKLEY BEFORE THE NORMAN CONQUEST

Ilkley mentioned by Ptolemy - A Brigantian station-Meaning of Olicana-The Anglo- Saxon subjugation -Conjectural site of the British "city" -The Roman station-- Description of the Roman camp-Local discoveries-The "Verbeiae" stone- Meaning of Wharfe--The "Hercules" stone, its probable significance -Christianity prevailing in places not reached by the Romans- The Celtic Church --Early forms of baptism- A remarkable Roman grave-slab at Ilkley-Other discoveries-The Ilkley camp the focus of four Roman highways-Their routes described-Saxon Christianity at Ilkley--Local sculptured crosses-Local influence of St. Wilfrid - Ilkley a Danish mint-Antiquity of boundaries-Ancient methods of cultivation.

CHAPTER XIV., THE TOWN OF ILKLEY AND ITS DEVELOPMENT

Contrast between old Ilkley and the present -Rustic aspects -The "Cow and Calf" rock s - -Ilkley "illuminated" at the Queen's coronation-A murder in the Cow Pastures - The Butterfield family-The old 'White Wells-Manorial records-Unpublished market-charter-Ilkley contributes to the war against Scotland --The English defeat at Bannockburn-Population and old inns-The Parish Church--Grammar School-Places of public worship--The old vicarage-Schools--Museum-Con- valescent homes -Coaches to and from Ilkley-Former life at Ilkley-Distinguished visitors-Old customs-Recent improvements-The Ilkley of to-day-Wheatley and its old Hall.

CHAPTER XV., RUMBALDS MOOR : ITS PHYSICAL FEATURES AND ANTIQUITIES

Unrivalled attractions of Rumbalds Moor--Meaning of its name-St. Rumold, a Christian martyr--View from the top of the moor- Local geology--Glacial evidences-Curious rocks and traditions-Advent of man --Original Goidelic settlement-" Cow and Calf" rocks-Marked stones and circles--Their universal dispersion-Local workers-Descriptive list of antiquities on the Moor-Theories and ideas respecting them-Symbols of time, &c.-Evolution of the Sun-Snake-- The doctrine of the ascending spirit-The marked stones, the basis of Ilkley's existence-Necessity for their careful preservation-Projected military encampment on the Moor-An unrivalled playground.

CHAPTER XVI., AROUND ILKLEY

Great changes about Ilkley-Hebers Gill, formerly Black Beck-An ancient tribal boundary-- Silver Well--Hollin Hall-The Hebers, Maudes, and Currers-Ilkley Bridge-Myddleton Lodge and the Middletons-The late William Middleton Esq. -His private benevolence-Sale of part of the Middleton estate.

CHAPTER XVII., AROUND BEAMSLEY BEACON

Howber Hill, its meaning-Supposed tumuli-Beacon lighted during the threat of the French invasion--Fine prospect-Langbar-An ancient paved way-Barnbowers- Currer Hall-Farrand House-West Hall and the Ferrands-Beacon House-The Briggs family-The late Mr. B. B. Popplewell-Church services at Beacon Hill- Local Wesleyans-Ling Park and the Kendalls.

CHAPTER XVIII., NESSFIELD

Meaning of Nessfield - Castleberg, a prehistoric camp - Local discoveries - Low Mill Scar - Norman land-cultivation - Plumpton family - Manor-house and mill - Old homesteads - John Prior, clock-makcs - The Kendalls and Nessfields - The new church - The swing-bridge.

CHAPTER XIX., PRE-NORMAN ADDINGHAM

Banishment of an Archbishop of York to Addingham in A.D. 870 - Abounding pre- historic sites - Discovery of a bronze spear-head - Roman road through Addingham - The coaching days - Close House --Roman camp on Counter Hill - Prehistoric tumulus - Ancient boundaries--Curious field-names - Local discoveries.

CHAPTER XX , ALL ABOUT ADDINGHAM FROM THE NORMAN CONQUEST

Little hitherto recorded about Addingham - Addingham in Cumberland - Domesday testimony - Meaning of Addingham - Historic evidences - The Battle of Flodden-- The Reformation--A local martyr--The Parish Church - Local families - A centenarian --Remarkable discoveries--Tithe-barn --Events at Addingham during the Civil War - Abstracts from the old parish hooks - Pinfold and ducking-stool - Petty Sessions - Old customs --Some old houses - The old School - The manor-house Farfield Hall - Local Nonconformists - Old trades The power-loom riots.

CHAPTER XXI, ON THE EARLY HISTORY OF BOLTON

Prehistoric evidences--Bolton, a possession of the Earls of Mercia - Conjectural royal residence at Bolton in Saxon times - Domesday inquest - Superior importance of Snaygill, &c., to Skipton - Importance of Embsay and Halton - Probable centres of Celtic missionary work - Grant to Romille and the building of Skipton Castle.

CHAPTER XXII., EMBSAY WAKE" AND THE FOUNDATION OF BOLTON PRIORY

Beautiful scenery - Motives for site of the Priory - Ancient religious associations at Embsay - St. Cuthbert's " Wake" - The Celtic Church in Northumbria--The painting of St. Cuthbert at Bolton Priory - The great Fair at Embsay--Remains of the Priory at Embsay - Citation of grant of the manor of Bolton - Legend of the Strid - The grange of Stead - Specte Beck and the name Speight - Citations from unpublished charters.

CHAPTER XXIII., BOLTON ABBEY : RECORDS OF EIGHT CENTURIES

Descent of the manor to the Cliffords - Purchase of the lordships of Bolton &c. by Henry, Earl of Cumberland - The Priory raided by the Scots - Abstracts from and remarks upon the ancient Compotus of the Priory - Death of the Lady Margaret Neville and the pomp of her funeral - The Nortons and the Catholic rebellion - Notes from letters at Bolton Abbey--Effects of the Dissolution - Local notices of the Civil War - Succession of the manor - The Cavendish family - Bolton Hall - Armorial errors - Cavendish Memorial Fountain - The late Duke of Devonshire.

CHAPTER XXIV., DESCRIPTION OF THE ABBEY

A neglected approach to the Abbey - A Pilgrim's Cross - Beauty of the scenery - The Poet Laureate's observations--The ruined choir - Norman sculptured stones - "Sermons in stones" - Additions in the 13th century - The parish church - Architectural description - The Beamsley Hall chapel - Vault for upright burials - Sealed altar - Other relics - The tower &c. - The Priory oven - Local discoveries - A pilgrim's statue.

CHAPTER XXV., MAR'I'ON: A LONG-LOST RELIGIOUS HOUSE

Local references to Marton Priory - The Bolton monks' land at Marton in Craven - The Priory of Marton in Cleveland - Records at Bolton Abbey - Discoveries on the site of Ingthorpe Grange - Was there a dependent cell to Bolton at Marton ? - Situation of the religious house - Old monastic orchard - Family of Baldwin - Description of Ingthorpe Grange.

CHAPTER XXVI., AROUND BEAMSLEY

Picturesque aspect - Local families - Manor of Beamsley - The Claphams - Beamsley Hall Risphill and Gibbeter - Troubles of the Reformation - Beamsley Hospital - Ancient ferry-house - Bolton Bridge - Old Roads.

CHAPTER XXVII., ROUND ABOUT DRAUGHTON

Local geological phenomena - The great anticlinal, cause of the Harrogate mineral waters--Aspects at Bolton Abbey - Draughton in Domesday - Old local families - Dr. Wainman - Draughton Hall - Local relics - An old cotton-mill - The church and school - Past traditions - A story of witchcraft - Close House and the Moorhouses - Local belief in "Red Cap" - Pedigree of the Moorhouses - Local relics in possession of the author - Families descended from the Moorhouses - Dr. Moorhouse - The Currers of Skibeden - East Skibeden and Judge Nightingale - A crack shot - Local anecdote.

CHAPTER XXVIII., THROUGH THE WOODS TO BARDEN TOWER

Unceasing charm of Bolton Woods - Wild flowers - The Bishop of Lincoln, Archbishop Benson and Mr. Ruskin's opinions - Andsell and Landseer at Bolton - The Rev. Wm. Carr - Opening out the woods with pleasant paths and drives - The Rev. A. P. Howes - Names of some old "Seats " - The " White Horse" of the Strid - Lud Islands - Barden Tower - Inventory in the time of Lady Anne Clifford - Life at Barden Tower in the time of the "Shepherd Lord " - Abstracts of his domestic expenses - Forest lodges and river-watchers - Local relics - Barden Church.

CHAPTER XXIX., THROUGH THE VALLEY OF DESOLATION TO SIMON SEAT

Posforth Gill waterfall - A great flood - Romantic gorge - Bounds of the Forest of Barden - British evidences - An old trackway over the moor - Remains of ancient bloomeries - In the Valley of Desolation---Deer still wild there - On the top of the moor - Strange rocks and wild plants - Truckle Crags, old rock-shelters - Cairn of the "Devil's Apronful" - Simon Seat - Curious rock phenomena - Glorious view - Remarkable depression on the moor - Geological peculiarities - Lord's Seat - Boundary of the Forest of Knaresbro'.

CHAPTER XXX, APPLETREWICK

Importance of Appletrewick before the Norman Conquest - Its ancient gallows. - Manorial history - Sale of the manor to Bolton Priory - Grant of free warren, its meaning and significance - History after the Reformation - Old houses - Erroneous conclusions - Court rolls of the manor - Old customs - Local families - The stocks - Ancient mansions - The noble family of Craven - Supposed birth-place of Sir Wni. Craven - Low Hall and the Proctors - Local ancestry of Archbishop Benson - Meaning of Appletrewick.

CHAPTER XXXI., UP THE DALE TO BURNSALL

A lovely drive through the Forest of Barden - Old Forest lodges - Club Nook - Rustic simplicity - Drebley - Prospect from Burnsall Fell Side - Woodhouse and the Blands - Ancestral connections with Lord Nelson - Old houses and families - Hartlington - Local properties of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem - The Metcalfe family - Manorial records - Feudal obligations - Some errors corrected - Hartlington Hall, the residence of Lt.-Col. Dawson - The old manor-house and chapel - An old inn - Ancient family of Dibb - Skyreholme - Percival Hall and the Lowsons - A notable marriage - The Inman family - The gorge of Trollers Gill - Descent of Hell Hole - Geological aspects.

CHAPTER XXXII., BURNSALL

In the land of the Viking - Meaning of the name Burnsall--Dale-names in the Sagas - Post-Norman history - The glebe - Local monastic possessions - Bond tenure - Quality and weight of cattle in ancient times - First evidences of the occupation of Burnsall - Revival of Christianity - Early sculptured crosses - Burnsall never in the parish of Linton - Ancient holy-wells - Description of crosses - Historical inaccuracies - The medieties of the church - The ancient chapels at Rilston, Coniston, and Bradley - Rectors of Burnsall - The church described - Eleventh century font - Churchwardens' accounts - Old customs - Local pastimes - The old Grammar School - Local improvements - Pleasant scenery.

CHAPTER XXXIII., THE ANCIENT TOWNSHIP OF THORPE, OR THORPE-SUB-MONTEM

A "Sleepy Hollow," the "birth-place of the world " - A pre-Christian burial-vault and old bear den - The shoemakers of Thorpe - The Bally Hill, an old British encampment - Evidences of coral-reefs - Elbolton Cave - Discovery of human and other remains - Antiquity of the deposits--Bones of Arctic animals - Subsequent history - The hall and manor-house - Former aspects.

CHAPTER XXXIV., LINTON-IN-CRAVEN

Numerous Lintons - Historical errors - Local monastic possessions - Traditions of an alien Priory - Discovery of a remarkable brass crucifix - A brass seal of St. Michael found near Bolton Abbey - Evidences of Celtic occupation - " Borrans" at Linton - Celtic customs at Linton - Superiority of Grassington over Linton in Anglo-Saxon times - The manor at the Conquest - The church - Architectural description - The rectors - Notes on the registers - Pre-Reformation burials - The old rectories - Local evidences of Anglo-Saxon and other customs - Linton Hospital - Notable houses - Delightful scenery.

CHAPTER XXXV., AROUND THRESHFIELD

The sense of freedom and freshness among the Craven fells - The valley at Threshfield - Caverns at Skirethorns and evidences of prehistoric inhabitants - Remarkable finds - Early cultivation of land - Ancient customs - The family of Threshfield - Local grants to Fountains Abbey - The Old Hall - Inn - Craven butter - Notable houses - Local families - The park - Grammar School - Distinguished pupils.

CHAPTER XXXVI., CELTIC GRASSINGTON

Romantic scenery - Archaeological interest - Grassington an ancient "city" - Extensive prehistoric earthworks &c. - Recent discoveries - A Celtic stronghold-- Antiquity of local lead-mines - Roman conquest - Bronze and iron - Discovery of Roman coins - The High Close encampment - Roman roads - Peculiar field-names - Celtic traditions - Fairy Hole - Miners' superstitions - Celtic numerals - An old Roman custom.

CHAPTER XXXVII., GRASSINGTON PAST AND PRESENT

The displacement of Christianity--Grassington the last stronghold of Celtic independence - Extent of cultivation at the Conquest - Garsington in Oxfordshire - Manorial history - The Plumptons - The Old Hall, a notable house---Architectural description - Ancient local families--Grassington Beacon - Meeting of Yorkshire naturalists - A Paradise of wild-flowers - Beautiful scenery - Our Lady's Well - Ghaistrills - Present aspects of the town - Proposed light-railway - Old customs - Local dissent and effects of the Reformation.

CHAPTER XXXVIII., ON THE HIGH MOORS

A tramp into Nidderdale - An old road - Natural history attractions - On the moors with the late Mr. H. T. Soppitt - A search for the bear-berry - An extensive prospect - Ancient hill-names - Discovery of a brass celt - Greenhow Hill - The highest church in Yorkshire - Geology of Greenhow - The Bradford Waterworks tunnel.

CHAPTER XXXIX., ROMANTIC HEBDEN

Picturesque aspects - Name of Hebden - Thor's Well - Manorial history - The family of Hebden - Roman Catholicism in Upper Wharfedale - A Hebden recussant - Local improvements - Former appearance of the village - An ancient drying-kiln - The old manor-house - Old natives - Anecdote - Some old homesteads - The church - Romantic scenery - Ancient field-names.

CHAPTER XL., ROUND ABOUT CONISTON

Romantic scenery - Chapel House - A grange and chapel of Fountains Abbey - The Tennant family - The village of Coniston - Meaning of Coniston - Antiquity of the church - Its present aspects - Old houses - Prehistoric evidences - Discoveries in Coniston Pastures - Local hill-names.

CHAPTER XLI., KILNSEY

Prehistoric habitations - Dowkabottom Cave - Discoveries of prehistoric animal and human remains - Relics of prehistoric spinning and weaving - Name and meaning of Kilnsey - Local possessions of Fountains Abbey - Grange destroyed by the Scots - Annual sheep-shearing at Kilnsey - Rights of way for ox-wains &c. - The old Hall and the Wade family - Lady Anne Clifford at Kilnsey - Kilnsey Crag - Local inns - Kilnsey Angling Club.

CHAPTER XLII., KETTLEWELL

Remoteness from railways - Proposed line up Wharfedale - The charm of isolation - Local inns and accommodation - The Great Scar-Limestone - Formation of terraces Ancient " terraced reins " - Antiquity of local husbandry - Prehistoric evidences - Scale Park Hunting Lodge - Name of Kettlewell - Progress of agriculture - Manorial history - Old families - The church - Wesleyan Chapel - Kettlewell blacksmiths - Inns - Romantic scenery - Douk cave.

CHAPTER XLIII., A TRAMP THROUGH LITTONDALE.

Local possessions of Fountain Abbey - Wild beasts and birds of prey - The eagle in Littondale - Last record of the eagle in Wharfedale - Routes into Littondale - Hawkswick - The Horse Head pass - Across Malham Moors - Dalesfolk and the Transvaal War - Rainfall in Littondale - Heat and cold - Local longevity - Vicars of Arncliffe - Botany of Littondale - Some rare wild flowers - The church at Arncliffe - Halton Gill chapel, &c. - Wild scenery.

CHAPTER XLIV., UP DALE FROM KETTLEWELL TO BUCKDEN

Picturesque scenery - The village of Starbottom - Meaning of the name - A historic flood - Old houses at Starbottom - Buckden Woods - Local field-names - At the dale-head-First records of Buckden - Wild deer - Manorial owners - Buckden Hall - Antiquity of manor-house - The family of Buckden - The village - Church and Wesleyan Chapel - The Friends - Wild scenery - A haunt of the marten - Cray.

CHAPTER XLV., IN WILD LANGSTROTHDALE

Extent of Buckden township - The Forest of Langstroth owned by the Percys and Cliffords - The chapelry of Hubberholme - Viking invasion - Antiquity of Hubberholme Church - Description of interior - An ancient rood-loft - The Heber family and the new parsonage - A walk up the dale - Poor's Pasture - Extermination of wild animals - Lodges in the forest of Langstroth - Local possessions of Fountains Abbey - Monastic cattle-folds - Raysgill - Beckermonds - The Lodge family - Oughtershaw and the Woodds - Local enterprise - A wealth of wild flowers - Discovery of coins - Romantic scenery - At the source of the Wharfe - Conclusion.


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